Dr. Einhorn received a B.S. from Indiana University in 1965 and his M.D. from the University of Iowa in 1968. He served his internship and residency at IU Medical Center, followed by a fellowship in Hematology/Oncology in 1971-72. He also had a fellowship in oncology at the M.D. Anderson Hospital Tumor Institute in Houston, Texas. He returned to IU Medical Center in 1973 and was named Distinguished Professor of Medicine in 1987. He became the first Lance Armstrong Foundation Professor of Oncology in 2006, renamed the Livestrong Foundation Professor of Oncology in 2014.
Dr. Einhorn has received numerous honors in his career including the Glenn Irwin Experience Excellence Award in 1996, Riley Distinguished lecturer in 1993, the Kettering Prize Cancer Research-General Motors Foundation in 1992, ACCC Clinical Oncology Award in 1991, the Distinguished Clinician Award, Milken Foundation, 1989, Willis Stetson Award and Lecture, University of Pennsylvania, 1989, and the Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Foundation Award for Cancer Research presented at the 1981 American Association of Cancer Research Meeting, Washington, D.C. He was awarded the Herman B Wells Visionary Award in 2001. He was elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences and American Philosophical Society in 2002
Recently, in 2013, he was named one of the 'Giants of Cancer Care' by OncLive for his notable work on the treatment of testicular cancer. He was also elected a fellow of the American Association for Cancer Research in 2014.